I would begin by asking you to compare Matt 5.v.1 with Matt 13 v 1. When Jesus teaches disciples, he teaches them on the mountain. They leave the crowds. When Jesus teaches the crowds, he uses the Hebrew art of Parables.
It is important to understand the difference between a parable and an allegory. In the culture of Jesus, a parable was a very simple thing. It was taught outdoors, it related to what was going on behind the teacher and it had a punch line. Nothing else mattered. The details of the story are not important. Later, in the Greek culture, the details became part of the story. The Parable became an Allegory. We see this today in the longer version of the Gospel.
THE PARABLE OF THE SOWER.
This takes place outdoors. Behind Jesus there is a farmer sowing his crop. Not all of the seed will be part of the harvest. Some fell on good soil and produced a harvest.
The punch line. If you want a harvest you must sow the seed. Not all of it will bear fruit. The only sure way to have a harvest is to sow the seed.
This parable is of great comfort to parents. When they have disappointment in their children about the practice of the Faith, it is well for them to remember that their job is to sow the seed. The harvest is the Lord’s. A parent’s role is to continue to sow the seed. They can continue to do this all through the lives off their children. Not all of this works. But there will be a harvest, some thirtyfold, some fiftyfold, some one hundredfold.
One sows, another reaps, one waters, one irrigates but God gives the increase.
Parables are simple and to the point. They are about the kingdom of God, the reign of God. We will see later how this refers to the Church.